GLOBIO includes the effects on fragmentation in terms of the effects of patch size on MSA. Distance between patches is not included.
The relationship between MSA and patch size is based on data on the minimum area required to support a viable population of a certain animal species (MVP). The proportion of species for which a certain area is sufficient for their MVP is calculated and considered a proxy for MSA. Datasets from 13 publications, covering a large sample of species, were used to derive the relationship between patch size and MSA. A linear mixed effect model was fitted to the data.
The data show that patches of over 10,000 km2 of suitable habitat provide sufficient space for viable populations of any species.