Model code

Screenshot of example GLOBIO model codeGLOBIO4 is developed as an open-source framework using open-source software. The model is using Python as a scripting language to run various biodiversity pressure-response modules that are built on geospatial libraries from the OSGeo project. The GLOBIO4 model code and documentation can be accessed via the GitHub repository at



Screenshot of the GLOBIO online interfaceThe GLOBIOweb explorer

To support regional, (sub-)national and landscape analyses we have developed an online interface that allows users to analyze changes in biodiversity intactness (MSA) for predefined or custom extents, and assess the contribution of the different pressures to these changes. The resulting data can be downloaded for further analysis and presentation.

The GLOBIOweb explorer can be accessed at


GLOBIO scenario data

Screenshot of a GLOBIO4 MSA mapThe GLOBIO4 model produces spatial datasets with scenario outcomes for land use/cover and mean species abundance (MSA) for plants, warm blooded vertebrates (birds and mammals) and an overall MSA. For selected papers and contributions to global assessments these datasets are made available for download.

>> Download GLOBIO4 scenario data <<


DRIP: man-made barriers in rivers

Photo of a man-made barrier in a river, source: Aafke SchipperDams in rivers provide hydro-power energy, secure water for irrigation, and help protecting against floods. But dams also disrupt river flow regimes and connectivity, with negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. To better understand the benefits and trade-offs of dams worldwide, we need accurate information on the number of dams and their locations. We took up this challenge with the Dam and Reservoir Inventory Project (DRIP): a crowd-sourcing project to compile a global atlas of dams. So we need your help!
Check out the DRIP website at


GRIP: global roads database

Map with global overview of the GRIP datasetThe Global Roads Inventory Project (GRIP) dataset was developed to provide a more recent and consistent global roads dataset for use in global environmental and biodiversity assessment models like GLOBIO. The GRIP dataset consists of global and regional vector datasets in ESRI filegeodatabase and shapefile format, and global raster datasets of road density at a 5 arcminutes resolution (~8x8km).The GRIP dataset is mainly aimed at providing a roads dataset that is easily usable for scientific global environmental and biodiversity modelling projects. The dataset is not suitable for navigation. GRIP4 is based on many different sources (including OpenStreetMap) and to the best of our ability we have verified their public availability, as a criteria in our research. The UNSDI-Transportation datamodel was applied for harmonization of the individual source datasets. GRIP4 is provided under a Creative Commons License (CC-BY 4.0) and is free to use

>> Download the paper and GRIP data <<<


Hunting impact data

Graph illustrating the effect of hunting on species groupsHunting is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but a systematic large-scale estimate of hunting-induced defaunation is lacking. We synthesized 176 studies to quantify hunting-induced declines of mammal and bird populations across the tropics. Bird and mammal abundances declined by 58% (25 to 76%) and by 83% (72 to 90%) in hunted compared with unhunted areas. Bird and mammal populations were depleted within 7 and 40 kilometers from hunters’ access points (roads and settlements).

>>> Download the paper and Excel dataset <<<




Nitrogen impact data

Photo of farmers applying fertilizers in a fieldNitrogen enrichment is among the main drivers of the loss of plant diversity in terrestrial ecosystems.  As part of the GLOBIO project, we have performed a systematic meta-analysis in which we synthesised the results of 115 experiments that assessed the effects of nitrogen addition on (semi-)natural terrestrial plant communities.

>>> Download the paper and Excel dataset <<<



Global database on urban ecosystem services assessments

Photo of a tree in an urban settingGlobally, cities are facing pressing challenges imposed by climate change, water security issues, air pollution and deterioration of public health and well-being. Urban Green and Blue Infrastructure (GBI) and their provisioning of ecosystem services are increasingly recognized for their potential to help tackling those challenges. However, knowledge on this topic is scattered. In a review, we synthesised more than 800 peer-reviewed scientific papers to identify where and how ecosystem services provided by urban GBI have been assessed.

The resulting database provides an overview of papers assessing six urban ecosystem services: local temperature regulation, air quality regulation, waste treatment (i.e. water and soil purification), storm water regulation, pollination and cultural services (i.e. recreation and aesthetic appreciation). The database contains information on various characteristics of the ecosystem service assessments, such as in which cities and which urban GBI service provisioning has been assessed, through which assessment methods and which types of contrast were used. The database also contains information on the indicators used to quantify the ecosystem services.

The work is part of the H2020 project NATURVATION (NATure-based URban innovation, 2017-2020) and was done in collaboration with the Centre of Environmental and Climate Research, Lund University, Sweden.

>>> Download the the database <<<

What future is there for global biodiversity?

This animation created by PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency is based on various PBL reports, including ‘Roads from Rio+20’, ‘Rethinking Global Biodiversity Strategies’ and ‘How sectors can contribute to sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity’ using GLOBIO outcome. What is happening to life on earth? What are the pressures affecting biological diversity globally, and what can be done to stop its decline? This short animated film brings you to the year 2050 and shows you the future is not fixed; the choices that we as a society make today will determine what the world will look like decades from now. In 2010, at the 10th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya, Japan, a vision for 2050 was formulated: to stop the decline of biodiversity and ensure its sustainable and equitable use. Based on state-of-the-art research this film paints a picture of how this vision could be achieved.


Combining human development with biodiversity conservation

Globio outcomes and expertise were used for this infographic, which is part of the PBL People and the earth infographics publication. The map shows biodiversity hotspots worldwide. Bar graph shows the main causes of biodiversity loss, for example food production, energy and traffic and tourism. Proposed solutions: sparing, sharing and caring.

PBL infographic showing future pathways on combining human development with biodiversity conservation